Friday, November 18, 2016

New Sock Release- Mountain Crew Alpaca Hiking Socks

Do you have yet to find the perfect hiking sock?
One that will fit like a second skin, wicks moisture away, and keep you comfortable, wet or dry?  These highly durable socks provide maximum comfort and moisture control.  Specialized ribbing on the top of the foot and sides create flexibility without bunching or bulk. This technology keeps the sock in place throughout your travels. Padding clinically shown to reduce blisters, foot pain, pressures and odor.

Tuesday, August 16, 2016

Mycoplasma Haemolamae in Alpacas

By: Internet, Norm Evans and Mike Six

Saving Your Alpacas' Life

“The Silent Killer”

Mycoplasma Haemolamae

This paper is to help you save your alpacas' life from one of the little-known alpaca diseases. The disease is Mycoplasma Haemolamae (MH). It is a “Silent Killer”! MH has been detected since the 1990's and was originally called Eperythrozoonosis or EPE. Recently the name has changed in the medical community for camelids, but it is still the same disease.
Alpaca health is very important to an alpaca business. Educating yourself about this disease will help protect your investment and your beloved alpacas. 

If you have an animal that is lethargic with chronic weight loss (frequently even though they are eating like crazy), chronic diarrhea, and/or has light to severe anemia you should consider Mycoplasma Haemolamae (MH) as a possible cause. You should start tetracycline treatment immediately. Weight loss can be +/- ¾ of a pound per day, then lethargy and anemia set in very quickly. The alpaca can die within days of the onset of MH without treatment. Over the 10 days of treatment the alpacas will respond positively quickly with weight gain, less lethargy and less anemia. It is possible for it to take months until they are back to normal and have gained all of their weight back. (If your alpaca is down and has had these symptoms and nothing you or your vet has tried has helped, please go immediately to “Treatment” below.)

Disease Definition:
Mycoplasma Haemolamae is a bacterium that attaches itself to the red blood cells of an alpaca. The immune system recognizes this as a problem and destroys the affected red blood cells. Your alpaca then becomes anemic. In the majority of alpacas infected with these bacteria, there are no signs of the disease. If your animal becomes immunocompromised through another one of the alpaca diseases or is stressed from a move, birthing, weaning, or through other environmental changes (like extreme heat), MH can rear its ugly head. Because of the immunocompromised condition of the alpaca with MH, other opportunistic parasites like strongyles, nematodes, coccidia, EMAC, clostridium A/B/C, SNOTS, etc. can quickly infect the alpaca and MH symptoms could be masked by the similar symptoms from these other parasites and illnesses.

Many animals have died from Mycoplasma Haemolamae but have an incorrect necropsy diagnosis. Most vets and/or labs do not look for MH during necropsy or even during standard blood panels. What usually comes back from a blood panel is anemia with high counts of white blood cells indicating potentially lymphoma. If you have a blood panel done by your vet and the white blood cell count is very high consider treating for MH. It has been found that misdiagnosis of the blood panel can lead to, lymphomic cancer diagnosis in your alpaca. This should be an alarm and treatment for MH should start immediately to prevent death. Use tetracycline treatment prior to other treatments to give your alpaca the best chance for survival. Giving tetracycline will not do any harm. Do not let your alpaca die from not trying. After the full treatment is completed, request another blood panel and compare with the first approximately 10 days after treatment has ended. The white blood cell count will be down significantly and continue to drop to normal counts over time if the alpaca had MH. This has amazed many vets had who were sure the alpaca potentially had cancer. Many alpacas have been put down or left to die after the cancer diagnosis. Why not treat with tetracycline?

The disease can manifest as an acute problem. Your alpaca may suddenly be unable to stand and be extremely weak. Routinely weighing your alpacas (or checking their body score if you do not own a scale) and paying special attention to alpacas with weight loss is the key in achieving early diagnosis. (Remember to record weight after shearing.)
Or MH may be a chronic problem. As mentioned before, your alpaca may have chronic weight loss and lethargy. Diarrhea, moderate to severe may accompany the many symptoms during the failing health of the alpaca. Anemia is one of the last symptoms to appear. Check for anemia by raising the eyelid of the alpaca. Look under the eyelid it should appear bright pink and/or red looking (healthy). This is called the FAMCHA method found in the sheep and goat industry. Pale pink and/or white or almost white usually means the alpaca is close to death with severe anemia.
Testing for MH:
This disease is a “Silent KILLER” and once your alpaca is weak and down you may only have hours to possibly save their life. In this case do not worry about testing. Please start the tetracycline treatment immediately unless your vet can draw blood within the hour.

If you have the time and suspect infection with Mycoplasma Haemolamae, have your vet do a PCR (polymer chain reaction) test from Oregon State University (OSU). The blood is drawn with a “purple top” vile. This test amplifies the DNA so low levels of the bacteria can be detected on the red blood cells. In case you cannot get the PCR results back from your vet or lab in a timely manner like (1-3) days, start treatment immediately, especially if you have exhausted all other potential causes and their treatments.

If your vet has drawn blood for testing, ask for the blood to be tested by Oregon State University. OSU has the only lab testing for MH in the country. OSU holds the patent for the process and I have not found another lab or university who performs the testing. If blood is sent for testing it must be in a “purple top” test tube, handled and processed properly and delivered immediately to OSU. OSU will provide your vet with the handling and shipping procedures, found on their web site. OSU does testing on Thursday's and if your sample arrives late it does not get tested until the next testing day which is Thursday of the next week (although they claim there is always a 1-3 days turn around). Results can be delayed causing death prior to receiving them. Also, if the blood is handled improperly or the alpaca has had antibiotics or some types of worming medication prior to testing, the results can be affected. Start treatment of your alpaca(s) immediately after the blood draw with tetracycline and then wait for the results from OSU. You will find that if it is positive for MH your ahead of the death curve. If it is negative you have not hurt your alpaca with tetracycline treatments.

Mycoplasma Haemolamae is treated with tetracycline (LA200). (Other brands of tetracycline are available but make sure they are the same strength as LA200.) It is available at your local farm supply. Tetracycline is a very common antibiotic and inexpensive.

The dosage used is .045 x the alpaca body weight = number of cc’s of tetracycline to administer. (Example: .045 x 100 pounds = 4.5 cc’s of tetracycline.) The dose is injected subcutaneously (under the skin) for 5 doses. The doses are given every other day for 10 days (5 shots total). 

Tetracycline is an over the counter drug and does not need to be prescribed by your vet. Check with your vet or refer to the “Norm Evans Field Manual” for dosages if you are unsure of my recommendation.

Unfortunately, it appears that tetracycline does not completely rid the infected animal of these bacteria for the rest of its life. It only lowers it to safe undetectable levels enough to save your alpacas' life. MH may reoccur in some alpacas more than once in their lifetime. If this happens repeat the process again.
Disease Transmission:
This is one of the alpaca diseases thought to be spread by blood. Blood sucking insects such as biting flies, mosquitoes, lice, fleas, and ticks can transmit MH. Or a used needle can spread the disease.

Decreasing Transmission:
You should work to keep biting and sucking insects to a minimum on your farm. Biting flies can be controlled by placing fly predators around poop piles and in areas of fly population. (Search for “fly predators” on the internet. They really work cutting the fly problem by 70 to 90% in a season!) Fly traps and fly sticks/tape help as well but do not eliminate the root of the problem. The fly predators last for approximately 2-3 years without placing more. Having chickens free range with your alpacas can eliminate many parasites like ticks, fleas and mites, plus other biting and sucking insects. (One chicken can consume 500 ticks per day.)

Only use a clean unused needle on each individual alpaca when giving injections. Needles are cheap. There is no reason to reuse a needle on another alpaca and risk the chance of transmitting any disease. (Besides, you dull the needle after the first use and it hurts more.) 

Yearling alpacas, crias, pregnant females and old alpacas seem to be affected more than an average healthy adult. Test and treat your suspected alpaca(s) with chronic weight loss issues. Then if positive, consider treating others or all in the herd having similar weight loss issues. AGAIN - watch weight closely as it is the primary symptom recognizable (+/- ¾ lb per day) without the interference of other opportunistic parasites. Purchase a good scale and use it. It is worth its weight in gold.

Treated animals usually go on to live a long healthy life. Even though they have not gotten rid of the disease, they can live with it. 

MH Carriers:
All alpacas have the potential to be a MH carrier. Mycoplasma Haemolamae is thought to be in approximately 70% of camelids (alpacas and llamas) in the United States per Norm Evans. More studies are being done to try and eliminate MH and other alpaca diseases. 

The MH carrier may look fine, you bring them home and potentially they can infect others in your herd causing problems. Biting fly's can be found everywhere and your alpaca can be bitten at your farm, during transport or even at an alpaca show and now become a carrier. A carrier can be healthy not showing signs for months or even years and maybe never.

Follow-Up Care/Treatment:
It is important to follow up treatments of MH with a series of herbs, minerals and vitamins to assist your alpaca's immune system recovery. (Please contact me if you would like to know what I use.)

Remember - Your Vet Does Not Save Your Alpaca’s Life. YOU DO!


Camelid Red Blood Cells are Unique:
Here's a couple of interesting facts about camelid red blood cells:
• They have a lifespan of 235 days vs. 100 days for human red blood cells
• Camelids have oval red blood cells instead of round like other mammals. This gives them a larger surface area so there is better oxygen exchange which helps them survive at higher, thinner air altitudes in their native South America.

The unusual shape of an alpaca’s red blood cell makes understanding alpaca diseases a challenge to veterinarians.

My Personal Opinion:
My personal opinion is that hundreds if not thousands of alpacas die in the US, yearly from MH without the knowledge of the vet or the owner. Most times the death is blamed on something else, failure to thrive, heat stroke, internal parasites, cancer, etc. How many times was this just an "educated guess"? I think many! 

I am not a vet, but an experienced alpaca owner. When I say experienced I mean, having experienced the effects of this “silent killer” disease first hand. I have seen animals die on my farm and many other farms, with most necropsies determining the death of the alpaca was from common parasites, heat stroke, failure to thrive or some other educated guess from the vet(s). This is done without the exact testing for MH. Without testing it is the vet's best guess. Remember, other parasites become opportunistic and flourish during the process of this disease, including cancer. The alpaca cannot fight anything else because it is busy fighting MH by attacking its own red blood cells, hence anemia. The alpaca dies quickly. Once you see an alpaca die from this disease with parasite and other medical treatments doing nothing to stop it you will never let it happen again! 

I am not a vet, but an experienced alpaca owner. If you are not sure about the advice and information I have given, call your vet and discuss MH with them prior to treatment, then get a second opinion and maybe a third. Just act quickly!

When you hear of multiple deaths on alpaca farms around the country it creates the alpaca disease of the year fear. It seems every year something new hits like SNOTS, EMAC, Barber Pole Worm, and so on. The blame is placed unknowingly on the new found disease of the year. Then the "experts" begin to give a series of seminars on the new disease of the year fear. Be safe rather than sorry and treat for MH during these so called outbreaks and you may save your alpacas' life.

Giving LA200 in the dosage mentioned earlier is RISK FREE and can do nothing to harm your alpaca, and it can't hurt even if the alpaca is by chance, ill from something else. Most vets do not recognize the deadliness of this disease and little is written about it, even in the Norm Evans Field Manual, it is just a mention. The articles I have read do not stress the seriousness or deadliness or even the treatment of MH.

Educating yourself can save your alpaca investment, money spent on vet assistance and your alpacas.

Feel free to copy this information and pass it to other alpaca owners.

Knowledge is Power!

Be aware, I am not a trained vet and many may poo-poo this article. Time will tell. To date, passing this information has saved hundreds of alpacas, and I hope many more to come!

The word is getting out and alpaca lives are being saved. But even as you read this article there is an alpaca dead or dying from Mycoplasma Haemolamae unbeknownst to their owners and their vets.

Thank you for the information about MH found on the web at:, Oregon State University, Dr. Norm Evans and input from multiple alpaca farms who have experienced this “Silent Killer”.

Alpaca owners, potential owners, veterinarians, and vet techs - if you would like to discuss this further, or if you have any questions contact me anytime.

Friday, March 4, 2016

New Product Release! Alpaca Felted Dryer Balls - Hypo-Allergenic, No Chemicals, Decreases Drying Time

All-natural, hypoallergenic alpaca dryer balls are an excellent alternative to the chemicals of fabric softeners or dryer sheets for softening clothes, reducing static, eliminating wrinkles. You also save electricity by reducing drying time up to 25%. Minimums of two balls are required and a set of 4 is recommended to generate maximum effectiveness, absorbing moisture from wet clothes while maintaining the humidity inside the dryer. 
   Save time and money – decreases drying time up to 25% - The more dryer balls you have in your load, the quicker the clothes will dry (4 balls are recommended per load).
   Softens clothes - reduces static, eliminates wrinkles (they will not shed on your clothing)
   Hypo-allergenic – 100% Alpaca Fiber - Commercial fabric softeners and dryer sheets are filled with harmful chemicals and perfumes that coat your clothing, eventually ending up on your skin and inside your clothes dryer.
   Environmentally friendly -No dyes added…All natural Alpaca colors – Go green and save at the same time
   Durable - The balls may last anywhere from several months to well over a year(s) depending on use. Dryer balls may continue to shrink slightly with continued use, which is normal.  They remain just as effective.
 *As these are handmade, colors and sizes may vary. Approximately tennis ball size.

How Alpaca Dryer Balls Work
Simply place dryer balls in your dryer with your wet clothes. That’s it – they do the rest! Felted dryer balls bounce around with your laundry to shorten drying time and reduce wrinkles without exposing your clothes to any of the chemicals used in dryer sheets or plastic dryer balls.  We recommend using at least three dryer balls to help keep laundry items from tangling around each other and increasing the airflow around the clothes, sheets or towels.
Dryer balls help reduce drying time by absorbing moisture and assisting the tumbling process. The balls may also help reduce static, although mixing natural fabrics with synthetics within the same load can cause some static.

For your first use, run the dryer balls through a dryer cycle with wet towels. The balls may initially become “hairy.” (They will not shed on your clothes). Carefully trim off the fuzzy hair with a pair of scissors, and they are all set. Over time, the balls may “pill,” which is normal. You can shave the pills off or leave them alone. If cleaning the dryer ball becomes necessary, run under hot water, add a drop of dish soap and rotate ball between palms until lathered, rinse in warm, then cold water. Air or machine dry.

Miss the scent of dryer sheets? Apply several drops of essential oils to scent your dryer balls (lavender and lilac are very popular). When using essential oils, we recommend sending the dryer balls through alone on a short cycle, or place them in a closed pillowcase in the dryer after you first put essential oils on them. Otherwise, you may get oil spots on your clothing. 

See other great gift ideas:

Tuesday, March 1, 2016

The Alpaca Market Then and Now

When we first “discovered” alpacas 12 years ago, we were highly skeptical of the business model.  Too easy – just have a baby alpaca, sell it and pay your mortgage.  It was a tough sell, especially to our banker in order to take out a business loan.  But, we penciled out how we could make it and stuck to it.

After nearly a thousand cold calls, marketing, advertising and showing around the country, we were a profitable business in 9 months.  We had the money to pay back our loan, but the bank suggested we keep it and continue to reinvest in our company.  And that is what we did.  We purchased better males, higher quality females, bought and sold. 

We were afraid that this type of market was a house of cards.  With so much transition in our economy, I questioned many times if the alpaca industry was still valid, or is it a fleeting fad like many other markets seemed to be- llamas, ostriches, buffalo and all of the others.  The problem with the meat-based products (buffalo, ostrich) is that there is only so much room on Safeway's shelf for meat.  The cattle lobbyists are one of the strongest lobby groups in the world.  If Ted Turner with his 10K buffalo and $7 Billion dollars cannot bust through into the meat market and get shelf space, no one will.  Emus can be used for meat and/ or their oil, but they are extremely difficult to raise and you have to kill them, not giving you a lot of product for the cost and risk involved.  I spoke with one guy who said they had to kill 30 ostriches a day to break even, so he could not make money.  Llamas are meant to be a beast of burden for packing or guarding.  (We have 3 llamas that we use for protecting our alpacas.)  They were extremely high priced in the 80s and a lot of people got burned, but this was always a house of cards.  There are only so many people that need a packing or guarding animal. 

The difference with alpaca is that it is hard to argue against extremely soft, warm, high performance clothing.  Who doesn't need warm socks or a hat when the weather gets cold?  The function of the alpaca is for its fiber.  It’s a textile animal that has a viable, in demand product for a large majority of the population.  Buying and selling unique livestock looses its novelty in the market after a while, although it seemed strong the first few years of business.  After two years of raising alpacas, we were at a country market show where someone asked for yarn.  Wow- what a great idea!  Utilize the alpaca what is was made for…

So we sent 10 pounds of fleece to a local mill, contacted a local knitter and had two hats made for our niece and nephew. 

The more we experienced alpaca products, having some made and trying items from other companies, the more we realized how great this product really was.  No wonder it has been used for over 6,000 years.  We began to explore and research the fiber itself – biological structure, potential uses, and availability locally and worldwide. 

We knew that this was the future for the business – the actual function of the animal.  Don’t get me wrong, I still love our alpacas, but this is where we needed to spend our time and money to develop our textile business.  And selling our alpacas would finance the research.

Then, 2007 happened.  Tough times for everyone, including non-essential markets.  Breeders stopped almost all major purchases.  Families who wanted alpacas for pets and 4-H suddenly didn’t have the discretionary money that most of us did the year before.

But, our alpaca product sales continued to grow.  The consumer market had begun shifting back towards home grown, natural products.  During Christmas (our largest sales time of the year), instead of buying many inexpensive gifts for people, we found our buyers were purchasing one or two high quality items – like $30 socks or a great hat that will last for years and years.

To some extent, the alpaca market as a hobby has returned.  They are excellent for kids – alpacas are gentle and intuitive, demanding respect in order to cooperate.  But, unless you are in the high-end breeding program, which we are not, it is extremely difficult to make your entire living off of breeding, buying and selling alpacas. 

I love alpacas.  I think everyone should have them. But to make a living off of them you need to have an additional “day job” with outside income or really treat alpacas as a business or some combination of the two.  Alpacas themselves are the easy part of my work schedule.  They are shorn once a year.  We have herd health checks every few months, trimming toes, checking teeth and their weight.  I look forward to going out every evening and seeing them contently lying around the pastures.

The work is going to the shows, sitting on the computer, sending fleece to mills, developing and packaging products.  It’s a fulltime business.  It’s definitely not the same selling a $12,000 animal in a day as selling a couple of pairs of socks. But that market, like many other markets (like real estate at the time) could not hold up.  They were a house of cards.  But there is still high function and demand for the animal – as a fiber and textile source.  Don’t get me wrong – I love each and every one of our 150+ alpacas.  I know their names, lineage, family members, when they are not feeling well.  I spent a week sleeping in the barn next to a premature pet-quality male cria that couldn’t stand or feed, milking the mom every couple of hours until he was strong enough to drink on his own.

I enjoy every aspect of this unique animal, but be sure that you thoroughly research the market and profitability before trying to make them your sole income.  We were fortunate to get into the alpacas when we did, dedicated our business to best utilizing them and giving them a great home.  But mortgages and living life is very expensive.  Make sure you have a plan before you put all of this on the backs of your alpacas.

Wednesday, February 24, 2016



by  —23 February 2016
Predator protection on four legs
Since the dawn of time, man has found refuge and comfort in his partnership with dogs. For millennia, these loyal friends have shared our hearth-fire, hauled our heavy loads, assisted our hunts, and protected our families from harm. However, one of the most interesting services that these faithful companions have provided over the generations has been the protection of our vulnerable livestock from threats, both large and small.
Livestock Guardian Dogs (or LGD’s), have a long and fascinating history with mankind, spanning thousands of years, and hailing from nearly every corner of the globe. Anywhere that you find humans raising livestock, you’re likely to discover a specialized breed of LGD dutifully living and working alongside their masters.
Skeletons of dogs and domestic livestock, such as sheep and goats, have been found side by side in archaeological sites, dating back at least 6000 years. Varro’s classic Roman text on agriculture, written around 100 B.C., lends support to this early use of dogs as guardians, asserting, “It is of great interest to those of us who keep fleece-bearing flocks, the dog being the guardian of the flock, which needs such a champion to defend it. Under this head come especially sheep but also goats, as these are the common prey of the wolf, and we use dogs to protect them.”
The dogs that Varro spoke so highly of in his texts were likely the same big, white Maremma dogs still seen guarding flocks across Italy today. Similarly, to this day, one can find Great Pyrenees dogs patrolling the mountains of France, Spanish Mastiffs battling brown bears along the Cantabrian Peaks in Spain, and dread-locked Komondors fending off packs of wolves in the Carpathian Mountains.
Closer to home, LGDs have developed a loyal following among farmers and ranchers in North America. Louise Liebenberg is one of those devotees.
Louise has raised and worked with LGDs for decades, and in many different environments around the globe. She worked as a professional shepherd in South Africa and the Netherlands, before settling into her current home in Alberta, Canada, where she keeps over 500 sheep.
She has learned a lot about LGD behavior, over the many years of close partnership she’s shared with her Sarplaninacs, an ancient breed from Kosovo. “There are a number of techniques that the livestock guardian dogs use to deter predators,” she says. “One of the primary ones is simply claiming territory. When LGDs live within a group of sheep, that area becomes the territory of the dog pack.”
She explained that the LGD will claim their territory by scent marking, patrolling the perimeters, and barking to make their presence known. They sometimes even speak the language of the wild canines they are defending against. “A common dusk activity is when the coyotes and wolves howl, the LGD will respond back. Sometimes howling, sometimes barking.” She continues, “We have seen our dogs respond to a serious threat by positioning themselves strategically around a flock of sheep. The intensity and focus with which the dogs do their job is amazing. For both the dogs and the predators, it’s not so much about engaging with the predator, it’s all about deterring. The dogs and the predators know that in a serious encounter with each other, they can be injured or even killed.”
Louise tells a story about an overly enthusiastic coyote that made the dire mistake of jumping into the sheep pen, and was promptly killed by two of her dogs. She recalls the event with sadness, but says such incidents are, luckily, a rare occurrence. “Overall, the best protection for the flock is provided when the LGDs form a barrier, and the predators simply avoid the area.”
Tim and Natalie Thurman raise Tibetan Yaks and Nigerian Dwarf Goats near Missoula, Montana. They, too, have experienced first-hand the value of LGDs on their farm. “We have neighbors with sheep, cattle, and alpacas. They have had major injury and losses of stock from the local cougars, bears, and wolves, but we have been very fortunate to have zero stock losses since the addition of our LGDs. We currently keep two adult dogs and an adolescent, and plan to import two more Sarplaninac dogs from Macedonia in 2016.”
Louise and the Thurmans’ experiences with these dogs certainly aren’t unique among livestock stewards. According to a 2004 report from Colorado State University, the most recent significant study, LGDs have been found to have a profound impact on rates of livestock loss among ranchers who use them. According to the report, sheep producers in Colorado who did not use dogs lost about six times more lambs to predators than producers who did keep LGDs with their flocks. The report states, “A total of 125 producers in Colorado estimated that their 392 dogs reduced predation losses by $891,440 in [a single year]. Thirty-six producers in North Dakota reported guarding dogs reduced predation on sheep by 93%.”
Experience shows that predation is not a problem that can be easily fixed by simply killing the bears, cougars, and wolves that live alongside farms and ranches. Research shows when a predator population is reduced, or temporarily eliminated, an empty niche is created that will be filled. Another pack of wolves will move in, a new cougar will claim the territory, or strange coyotes will take up residence. They will also, in many cases, double-down on their reproduction, causing the population to grow even faster than it would without human interference.
Additionally, if an adult female is killed that has half-grown youngsters back at the den, the likelihood increases that those babies will grow up and stay in their home territory, instead of moving out when they reach adulthood, as they normally would. Instead of having an adult cougar or wolf in the area with an established routine and territory, it is common to discover that there are now yearling cougar cubs or wolf pups without adult guidance, getting hungry, confused, and looking at our pets, kids, and livestock as easy meals.
According to Rob Wielgus, Senior Director of Washington State University’s Large Carnivore Research Laboratory, “We observed that when a wolf was killed, the chances of livestock getting killed increased the following year in that area — by 5 to 6 percent for cattle and 4 percent for sheep. With each additional wolf killed, the chance of livestock attacks rose further. The trend didn’t reverse until more than a quarter of the wolves in the state were killed in a single year. Then, livestock losses started to decline.” He has strong suspicions that the issue is caused by changes to the pack structure, social behavior, and hierarchy. “Packs are led by a male and female breeding pair,” he explains. “If one or both of those wolves is killed, the pack will often break up, giving rise to several breeding pairs—and thus an uptick in the wolf population.”
Wielgus and his team have not only studied wolves, but have also researched cougar behavior in areas where hunting and livestock clashes resulted in removal of the big cats. Cougars tend to establish a sizable territory for themselves, which they will often maintain for their entire lifetime. They will patrol, kill or chase away younger cats who try to come in and create chaos. If the established adult cougar is killed, Wielgus explains, “about three of these young guys come for the funeral and take up residence.”
As Wielgus and his students’ research shows, when new predators move in to fill a vacant niche, they don’t know the territory, don’t know the boundaries, and don’t respect human rules.
That’s where the dogs come in. A good LGD isn’t put in place to kill or injure predators, though they will certainly take that step if it becomes necessary. Rather, their job is to establish the territory as human ground. The local predators learn to give the dogs’ territory a wide berth, forcing them deeper into the woods and away from valuable livestock. The dogs aren’t eliminating the threat. They are setting boundaries, and giving these predators an incentive to search elsewhere for their food.
While there are many predator-friendly management solutions available to livestock owners, statistically and anecdotally, the clear winner among these has shown to be the Livestock Guardian Dog. Many producers report that they’ve not had a single loss of livestock to predators since their dogs arrived, and are finally able to sleep through the night without fear of prowling threats. To most farmers and ranchers, that’s the greatest measure of success possible.
Lauren Dixon - BeliWithSheep


Right now, a three year study is underway involving Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Montana sheep ranchers hoping to identify the dog breeds best suited to protect livestock from wolves. The study is being conducted by the National Wildlife Research Center in Utah and the findings are due out sometime within the next year.

Alpacas of Montana raises Turkish Anatolians as part of our herd protection program.